This work would not have been possible without the guidance of
my advisor Prof. F. Himpsel and very helpful discussions with
Prof. D. Huber. I would like also to thank fellow graduate students
R. Boutchko and R. Haslinger for sharing their experiences regarding
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Ph. Avouris and R. Wolkow, Appl. Phys. Lett.55,
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Men, M. Henzler, and F.J. Himpsel (unpublished)
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